Composer of the Week Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)

  • 23.06.2016, 20:43,
  • Music
Bonn Beginnings
BBC Disseminate Three Composer of the Week, Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Consequence 1 of 5

Beethoven«s retreat hamlet of Bonn is where he learnt to be a composer. Donald Macleod tells the tall tale of the maestro»s rookie years, and presents some of his neglected cock's-crow works.

If Bonn had had a woman preservation portion in the 1770s, its officers would probably have been haunt callers at 24 Rheingasse, the Beethoven people retreat. A neighbour might have heard little Ludwig occupation out from the vault where he had been locked by his drunkard forebear Johann, or witnessed one of the accustomed beatings Johann administered to «encourage» his son to unpractised the piano. Yet from this crooked unseen, Ludwig van Beethoven emerged as the greatest musician of his age — the composer who occupied the Roman legacy of Haydn and Mozart, then fully transformed it. This week, Donald Macleod charts the course of this modification in a series of five extended snapshots of Beethoven's sentience and effort, from his first attempts at balance to the special productions of his end years.

Today«s plan surveys Beethoven»s last ten years in Bonn, before his unceasing hit hard to Vienna in 1792. Along with his forebear, the throw of characters includes his grandfather, also named Ludwig, a premature court kapellmeister; his advisor, Christian Gottlob Neefe, who spotted Beethoven«s colossal power and did everything he could to support it; his innate, whose decease in 1787 liberal lost scars on the 16-year-old composer; Maximilian Franz, Elector of Cologne and Beethoven»s outfit in his set as a sprucely liveried court musician; Mozart, with whom Beethoven may or may not have feigned briefly; and Papa Haydn, with whom Beethoven was to have an uneasy disciple-advisor relationship in Vienna. The dulcet soundtrack includes an cock«s-crow piano quartet that Beethoven would later excavate for tangible when he came to note his first published piano sonatas, and two cock»s-crow masterpieces: an vigorous set of 24 Variations on an operatic air by Righini, and the Cantata on the Decease of Emperor Joseph II, of which Brahms remarked, when the manuscript resurfaced almost a century later, «it is Beethoven through and through».

Air: 20 April 2015
Duration: 1 hour

Summer in Heiligenstadt
Composer of the Week, Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Consequence 2 of 5

For Beethoven, 1802 decided both an wild nadir and a utmost of creativity. Donald Macleod explores how the composer's acceptance of his deafness spawned a terms of masterpieces.

Today«s plan focuses on six months in 1802, when Beethoven, on doctor»s orders, took a remainder-smoke in the mini, colourful spa-hamlet of Heiligenstadt. For some years the composer's hearing had been deteriorating but, by 1801, things had started to reach emergency element. In June of that year Beethoven wrote a despairing despatch to his adolescence old china Franz Wegeler, now a pre-eminent medic. Wegeler recommended a mutation of doctor, and it was the new man — Johann Adam Schmidt — who advised Beethoven to abscond to Heiligenstadt to turn his hearing a remainder away from the deafening bustle of Vienna. Here Beethoven wrote the verify known by offspring as the Heiligenstadt Testament — a despatch to his brothers, to be infer from only after his decease, in which he expressed discouragement at his hearing set-back but resolve nonetheless to achieve what he felt to be his artistic fate. His productivity during the summer of 1802 bears corroborating witness to that determination; here he wrote or completed his 2nd Symphony, the three violin sonatas Op 30, two of the piano sonatas Op 31, and more besides.

Air: 21 April 2015
Duration: 1 hour

Too Much of a Okay Thing
Composer of the Week, Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Consequence 3 of 5

Beethoven unveils his 5th and 6th symphonies, 4th piano concerto and more besides in a four-hour concert in the harsh frigidity of a Viennese December. Donald Macleod asks why.

Today«s plan homes in on a fasten on day, the 22nd of December 1808, when Beethoven mounted an special »benefit« concert — that is, a concert for his own pecuniary aid, in the Theater an der Wien. He had been petitioning the authorities for months for authorization to do this, and later he took the only beau he could get, despite the in truth that it clashed with a paramount relief consequence being held on the same evening in another dramaturgy. That, though, turned out to be the least of Beethoven»s problems, primarily of which was the temperature interior the auditorium, which he couldn«t yield to stimulate. Then there was the programme; four hours» benefit of the most challenging new music — demanding for an audience under the most affirmative of conditions, let along listening interior an icebox. To muddle through matters worse, Beethoven had fallen out with the orchestral musicians at a premature concert, and they refused to tell with him. The evening concluded with the Choral Fantasia, which the composer had hastily finished off to present a suitably illustrious conclusion to the proceedings. In the consequence, the exhibition came so hard unstuck that Beethoven had to the music halfway through and start again from the top. As one stylish who shivered his way through the whole evening observed, «one can without even trying have too much of a okay thing».

Air: 22 April 2015
Duration: 1 hour

From the Droll to the Sublime
Composer of the Week, Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Consequence 4 of 5

Donald Macleod explains how the amazing established fortune of Beethoven«s trashy potboiler Wellington»s Winning had total repercussions; it led to the revised rendition of Fidelio.

Today«s plan charts one of the most special episodes in Beethoven»s sentience, from modern development 1813 to the end of the following year. For the premature decade, Europe had been dogged by the Napoleonic Wars. Now Napoleon«s fortunes were origination to unravel, and in June 1813, Austria lewd its neutrality and joined the pact against the French. In the same month, the French army, fighting under Napoleon»s fellow-citizen, Joseph I, was defeated by Wellington at the Combat of Vitoria. Vienna was awash with a tide of chauvinistic glow, and that«s when the queenlike court mechanician, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, came to Beethoven with an untypical plan — would he made up of a chauvinistic percentage celebrating Wellington»s victory? The effort was instance to be written not for orchestra but for the Panharmonicon, a bellows-powered thingamajig-in-a-occurrence of Mälzel's fabrication that could procreate the sounds of a military line. Beethoven agreed, but in the consequence he produced an orchestral rendition instead. Premièred at a mr concert in December 1813, this fatuous effort became an immediate coup de th, and several more performances followed. By the law of unexpected consequences, when the government of the Viennese court opera were looking for a new motion, they turned to the most well-heeled composer of the tick: Beethoven. They approached him with a survey to staging his opera Fidelio, and he agreed, but only on the underpinning that he would be able to mutation it from start to finish — in the approach, creating the rendition most very much performed to this day.

Air: 23 April 2015
Duration: 1 hour

Three Modern Development Masterpieces
Composer of the Week, Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Consequence 5 of 5

In today's plan, Donald Macleod unpicks the overlapping origins of three modern development Beethoven masterpieces: the Missa Solemnis, the Diabelli Variations and the 9th Symphony.

Today«s plan picks up the track in the cock»s-crow months of 1819, with Beethoven planning to note a Leading Store for the introduction of his philanthropist and disciple, Archduke Rudolph, as Archbishop of Olmütz the following Slog. In the consequence, the ascend of the effort grew so far beyond his eccentric genesis that Beethoven overshot his self-imposed deadline by three years. Meanwhile, another commission had come along. The publisher, Anton Diabelli, wanted to in out a chauvinistic accumulation of piano variations on a giddy-hearted waltz of his own balance, to be contributed by the 50 most noteworthy composers and virtuosi of the Austrian empire. Each composer was to present a fasten on variety, Beethoven included. Something about the delineate palpably fascinated him because, instead of one variety, he in the end came up with 33 - his largest and many would say greatest piano effort. So he penurious off effort on the store to note the first two-thirds of the Diabellis. He then set those aside for another new commission, to made up of three more piano sonatas; they would be his last. Only then, in 1822, did he go back to the store, when he also started effort on the 9th Symphony. That too was set aside while he completed the Diabelli Variations, after which he faultless off the 9th. Confused? You won«t be after today»s show.

Air: 24 April 2015
Duration: 1 hour

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